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Michael Harris Bond

Hong Kong Polytechnic University

Short bio:

Michael Harris Bond was born and raised by Anglo-Canadian parents in Toronto, Canada. He then left his birthplace for graduate school in the United States and early career in Japan, learning the basics for doing cross-cultural research. He has practiced as an academic in Hong Kong over the last 50 years and written widely on cultural differences in cognition, emotions, and behavior, integrating this research work most recently as one of the co-authors with Peter B. Smith et al. of Understanding social psychology across cultures (Sage, 2013).

From then to now and beyond in cross-cultural psychology: How using norms can explain cross-cultural variation in individual social behaviors


During the last 40 years, Smith and Bond have participated in four progressive stages of research in cross-cultural social and organizational psychology, namely the Descriptive, the Psychological-Moderational, the Multi-Cultural, and the Integrative Stages. I will describe and give examples from these developmental and overlapping stages, pointing out their distinctive yields and problematics. I will exemplify the most recent Integrative Stage by describing the multi-cultural study of dignity, honor, and face. This study has pioneered the measurement of interpersonal norms at both the cultural and personal levels, combining a situational with a personality framework in modeling and explaining interpersonal behavior across cultural groups. We propose that its use of cultural and personal norms as moderating and mediating mechanisms respectively sets a promising agenda for future research in cross-cultural research focusing on social processes and outcomes.

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